Vena cava’s superior syndrome (VKSS), right vena cava superior (VKS) Clinical findings due to obstruction in atrial discharge and
The name given to the group of symptoms.
Anatomy and Physiology of superior vena cava syndrome.
Vena kava is responsible for venous drainage of superior head, neck, arms and upper thorax and the heart performs a third of the venous conversion. A thin-walled vein for lung and mediastinum (especially to the mid-median line of the anterior mediastinum)
It is very sensitive to the pressure of existing lesions. In the obstructive VKS itself, it may be in the big veins vacated in the VCS or in the place where the VCS vacates.
Obstruction may be caused by external pressure, intravascular (tumor, thrombus may also occur due to pathologies. Whatever the reason, at VKS Obstruction increases pressure on the venous line, causing a reverse flow.
Vena cava super superior obstruction, especially azygous venous system and vena cava inferior to the development of venous collateral circulation opens. Vena kava superior causes acute obstruction of cardiac output temporarily
It happens. But within hours, the situation is compensated by collateral circulation. Collateral the veins become dilated within a few weeks and the pressure rising in the upper half of body.
It shows a significant fall. This fall is temporary, when the event becomes permanent, over time
In the etiology ofVKSS, which was formerly caused by infectious causes such as syphilis and berculosis malignant tumors have been seen more frequently for about 25 years.
Responsible for 60-85% of patients with VKSS. More recently than in the past
Port catheters used, intravascular devices such as heart valves and implanted defibrillators due to thrombotic complications due to devices (> 30%) increase in VKSS
It is monitored. Etiological reasons are summarized.
Malignancy is unknown in 60% of cases with malignant VCSF and the first findings are thought to be related to VKSS. Non-small cell lung-
Cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of VKSS.
Her small-cell lung cancer (KHAK). The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is 10%. Malignant VKSS 95% of the cases consist of lung cancer and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients.
Vena Kava Superior Syndrome in Lung Cancer
When all lung cancer cases are examined, approximately 4%.
In small cell lung cancer, central and mediastinal lymph node involvement , this rate is over 10%. The tumor is located in the upper right lobe or
When the mediastina is localized, VKSS develops more frequently due to anatomic proximity (10-15%).
In lung cancer, VKSS is directly related to tumor invasion, Lymph node pressure. The severity of the syndrome is the development of the collateral vascular system Speed.
If the obstruction slowly develops, the circulatory flow changes adaptation occurs and clinical signs are not very obvious.
Due to venous hypertension developing distally from symptom and detectable obstruction, very rare. Respiratory distress is often associated with the pressure of the accompanying trachea Vena cava super syndrome is an emergency and requires rapid intervention a controversial issue. Ninety works, including a 1986 case.